Mexico: Five Years after the Crisis
Daniel Lederman, Ana María Menéndez, Guillermo Perry and Joseph Stiglitz
The World Bank
April 13, 2000
Prepared for presentation at the ABCDE Conference of the World Bank, April 18-19, 2000
Abstract
This study identifies the main factors that explain the recovery of the Mexican economy after
the currency crisis of 1995. A growth decomposition exercise shows that export growth mitigated
somewhat the effect of the crisis in 1995, but contributed only modestly to the recovery
afterwards. The V-shaped behavior of fixed investment was the main factor behind the economic
slowdown during the crisis and the strength of the subsequent recovery. Evidence for Indonesia,
Korea, and Thailand also show that fixed investment explained a substantial portion of the
reduction in economic growth during their recent crises. Econometric results show that fixed
investment fell precipitously in 1995 as a result of both the negative income effect and the
increase in the cost of capital caused by the sharp depreciation of the currency. However, this
initial contractionary effects of the devaluation were followed by the dominance of the
substitution effect in favor of tradables output, which, in the Mexican case, has a higher
multiplier effect on investment than non-tradable output. We found no evidence of a
"confidence" effect associated with hikes in real interest rates (we did find it in the 1982-83
crisis, however). Also, we found support for the view that access to the U.S. financial market was
a key feature of the recovery after 1995. A policy implication that emerges from the analysis is
that, for countries like Mexico, currency depreciation, in spite of initial contractionary effects,
appears as a better policy response to speculative attacks than interest rate defenses of overvalued
currency levels.
Stiglitz was Chief Economist and Vice-President for Development Economics of the World Bank when this study
was launched. Perry is Chief Economist and Director for Latin America and the Caribbean of the World Bank.
Lederman and Menéndez are Economists in the Office of the Chief Economist for Latin America and the Caribbean
of the World Bank. The findings and opinions expressed in this paper should not be attributed to the World Bank, its
Board of Directors, or the countries which it represents. We are grateful to Luis Servén, Eliana Cardoso, and two
anonymous reviewers for insightful comments on an earlier version of this paper. All remaining errors can be
attributed to the authors.
INTRODUCTION
The Mexican economy experienced a sharp contraction in 1995, after the Peso
devaluation of December 22, 1994. The GDP growth rate reached an annualized rate of -6.2
percent in 1995, and became positive again during the first quarter of 1996. In 1996 and 1997 the
Mexican economy grew at healthy rates of 5.1 percent and 6.8 percent respectively. It has been
suggested by some authors that the decisive response of the fiscal and monetary authorities
supported by a generous financial package of billions of dollars announced in March 9, 1995,
were crucial for a rapid recovery of lost investor confidence. These observers further argue that
these policies prompted a rapid stabilization of the currency and a turnaround in investment and
economic activity.1 It is also claimed by some that the lack of equally forceful responses and
large enough financial support packages might explain why recovery was more elusive in the
recent Asian crises. Thus, assessing the factors behind the fast Mexican recovery of 1996/97 is
relevant for current debates about appropriate responses to currency crises.
The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors that explain the recovery of the
Mexican economy after the tequila crisis. Section I.A. begins by establishing the contributions of
aggregate demand components to the GDP growth rate since 1993. A simple decomposition
analysis shows that economic growth in Mexico after the tequila crisis recovered primarily due to
the behavior of fixed investment. The fixed investment growth rate declined drastically during
the crisis year, 1995, but subsequently rose above pre-crisis levels. The growth of exports (in
1For example, the IMF (1996: 25) wrote that "In Mexico, tight fiscal and monetary policies helped reduce actual and
expected inflation in the first half of [1995], contributing to further gains in confidence, declines in interest rates, and
the stabilization of the peso."
2
Pesos) seems to have prevented an even deeper recession during 1995, but its contribution to
economic growth declined during the recovery.
Section I.B. evaluates the behavior of both fixed investment and inventories during and
after the tequila crisis to conclude that the role of fixed investment was far more relevant for the
economic recovery. This section also compares the behavior of these components of investment
for some Asian economies during and after their crises of 1997. The aim of this comparison is to
see if the conclusion found for the case of Mexico can be extended to the experience of other
economies that have also gone through recent periods of crises. The evidence for Indonesia,
Korea and Thailand shows that, in times of economic crises a drop in fixed investment does
explain more of the reduction in economic growth than does a decrease in inventories. We
cannot, however, evaluate the role of these components of investment for periods of recovery,
because recovery is just beginning to take place in these economies and any conclusion based
upon only a couple observations risks being misleading.
Section I.C. examines the elements behind the increase in export growth during and after
the tequila crisis. First, this section finds that the growth of non-oil exports at constant domestic
prices was not only due to the real depreciation of the Peso but, there was also an increase in the
volume of non-oil exports. Second, the Mexican economy showed some gains in
competitiveness. During 1993-1999 there was a continuous decrease in unit labor costs in
Mexico, even on the eve of the crisis, when there was an appreciation of the real exchange rate.
However, the cost of labor measured in US dollars per man/hour increased as the real exchange
rate appreciated during 1994, making exports less competitive in the pre-crisis period. Then, as
the real exchange rate depreciated, the remuneration in US dollars decreased to the levels of
1993, and remained at that level through the end of the 1990's. Finally, when we compare the
3
remuneration in US dollars per man/hour in Mexico and Korea, we find that in both countries
this indicator followed similar patterns during and after their crises: losing competitiveness on
the eve and early parts of the crises and regaining it by the time of the recovery. Additionally, this
indicator of competitiveness shows that for those periods when these countries were not facing
crises, they had similar levels of international competitiveness. Hence, the Mexican and Korean
real depreciations were successful in helping the tradable sectors regain international
competitiveness, which had been lost during periods of real appreciation.
Section II focuses on possible determinants of the rate of growth of fixed investment in
Mexico. It presents a standard model of investment behavior, with the only addition (to standard
models) being that aggregate investment depends differently on the output of tradable and non-
tradable goods. A companion paper by Lederman et. al. (2000) presents the theoretical model
behind this investment function, which shows that output capital intensities determine the
magnitude of the so-called income multiplier effect. Results for the basic investment function
indicate that the tradable sector has a higher multiplier effect on Mexican investment than the
non-tradable sector; the domestic real interest is a significant determinant of Mexican
investment; the relative price of capital and the volatility of the real exchange rate have negative
effects on investment. This basic model provides a good explanation of the growth of fixed
investment in Mexico, especially in the aftermath of the 1995 crisis. Evidence of this is provided
by the out-of-sample forecast of the growth rate of fixed investment. Finally, this section presents
estimates of the contribution of tradable and non-tradable out growth and of variations in the
relative price of capital goods on the Mexican GDP growth rate during 1995-1999.
Section III examines the role of financial transmission channels. This question is
important in the case of Mexico because its financial system went through deep transformations
4
and crises during the last two decades. After the 1982 debt crisis banks were nationalized. Then,
in 1991, they were privatized. On the eve of the tequila crisis, the whole system was, once again,
in a very fragile position with a large share of non-performing loans. Conclusions are drawn with
the help of results from the aforementioned companion paper by Lederman et.al. (2000). The first
conclusion is that the lack of credit availability has a significant and negative effect on the rate of
growth of fixed investment. A second conclusion is that it seems that there was no confidence
effect during the tequila crisis. i.e., an increase in interest rates does not seem to have encouraged
investment during this crisis.2 Finally, US interest rates negatively affect fixed investment, a
result that provides strong evidence in favor of the Kruger-Tornell (1999) hypothesis that access
to the U.S. financial market by Mexico's firms operating in the tradable sector was a key feature
of the economic recovery after 1995. In fact, when both real interest rates are introduced
simultaneously, both maintain their negative and significant coefficients.
Section IV addresses the dynamic relationship between fixed investment and the real
exchange-rate. Section V asks if there were short-term substitution effects on the composition of
output growth due to variations of the real exchange rate. These two questions are addressed by
examining the impulse-response functions (IRFs) of investment and sector outputs to exogenous
shocks of the real exchange rate. For example, in order to capture dynamic effects of the real
exchange rate on the growth rate of fixed investment, we estimated a Vector Auto-Regressive
(VAR) system that included several exogenous variables as well as three endogenous variables
(the differenced log of the level of fixed investment, of relative price of capital and the real
exchange rate). The results show that a depreciation of the real exchange rate initially has a
contractionary effect, but its effect becomes expansionary after about 5 quarters. An appreciation
2It is possible that this conclusion might depend on the frequency of the data used. This model was estimated with
5
also seems to have significant short-term substitution effects in favor of the tradable sector. More
generally, the story that emerges is that Mexican fixed investment growth declined during 1995
due to the devaluation's impact on the relative price of capital and negative income effect, but the
eventual recovery was driven by the high multiplier effect from the tradable sector; declining
domestic interest rates and low lending rates in the U.S.
I. Growth Decomposition
A. General decomposition
The decomposition of the GDP growth rate into the contributions of its aggregate demand
components comes from a transformation of the basic macroeconomic identity: Y=C+I+X-M,
where Y is the level of output, C is the sum of private and public consumption, I is the level of
gross investment, X stands for exports, and M for imports. By first differencing each element,
dividing by the ex-ante level of Y, and some simple manipulations, the growth of output can be
decomposed into the contributions of the growth rates of each of its components:
(1) Y/Yt-1 = (Ct-1/Yt-1)·C/Ct-1 + (It-1/Yt-1)·I/It-1 + (Xt-1/Yt-1)·X/Xt-1- (Mt-1/Yt-1)·M/Mt-1.
This expression can be easily expanded to include the contribution of more disaggregated
demand components. For example, the contribution of gross investment can be further
decomposed into the sum of the contribution of fixed investment and inventory accumulation.
Figure 1 shows the growth rates of GDP and the rates of growth of each demand
component on the basis of a year-on-year (i.e., seasonally-adjusted and annualized) rate. In the
pre-tequila period, imports and exports were the most dynamic components of GDP. The rate of
growth of exports rose gradually from a very low rate of 0.18 percent in the first quarter of 1993,
quarterly data.
6
to 20.97 percent in the second quarter of 1994. In the case of imports, the acceleration in their
growth rate was more dramatic and began a year later. In the final quarter of 1993 the rate of
growth of imports was 0.92 percent and by the second quarter of 1994 it reached 24.60 percent.
This sharp rise in the growth rate of imports reflects the effect of the appreciation of the real
exchange rate that occurred prior to devaluation at the end of 1994.
The tequila crisis was sparked by the announcement of a 15 percent nominal devaluation
in December 1994, and ended with a depreciation of the exchange rate of 43 percent by March
1995. In that year, there was a rapid reversal in imports, with their rate of growth dropping from
19.17 percent in the last quarter of 1994 to a negative growth of 19.81 in the second quarter of
1995. Imports showed negative rates of growth throughout 1995, even though all trade
liberalization policies remained in place. Exports, on the other hand, continued to grow.3 These
responses of the external sector to the crisis helped reduce the overall decline of GDP.
By the first quarter of 1996, a year after the crisis began, Mexico's GDP growth rate
became positive once again. During this period of recovery, export growth slowed, even though
exports remained among the more dynamic components of demand. Their average rate of growth
between 1996 and the third quarter of 1999 was 12.99 percent. Imports, meanwhile, grew rapidly
-- by 18.43 percent --, surpassing the average growth rates of all the demand components.
Fixed investment was another demand component with impressive changes in its rate of
growth before, during and after the tequila crisis. The behavior of the growth rate of fixed
investment parallels that of imports, which may be due to the fact that Mexico imports over 30
percent of its capital goods. During 1994, the year before the crisis, the growth rate of fixed
investment accelerated from 3.5 percent in the first quarter, to 10.43 percent in the last quarter. In
7
1995, during the crisis, the growth rate drop was greater for fixed investment than for any other
component of demand. It plummeted to negative rates of growth of around -30 percent. Finally,
during the period of economic recovery, the rate of growth of fixed investment recovered
quickly, surpassing its pre-crisis rates of growth. Its average rate of growth between 1996 and the
third quarter of 1999 was 14.1 percent.
Figure 2 shows the contributions of each component to GDP growth. During the crisis,
there was a reversal in the role of imports. While in 1994 imports contributed 4.08 to the GDP
growth of 4.45 percent, in 1995 imports contributed 3.35 percent to the GDP growth of 6.18
percent. During the recovery, once again imports contributed negatively to GDP growth. Exports
increased remarkably their contribution to GDP growth during the period of crisis. In 1994
exports contributed 2.71 percent to the GDP growth of 4.45 percent. During the year of the crisis,
exports contributed 5.19 percent to the GDP growth of 6.18 percent. During the recovery the
contribution of exports declined: between 1996:1-1999:3 exports contributed 3.42 percent to an
average GDP growth of 5.13 percent.
Contributions of fixed investment, on the other hand, declined along with the fall in GDP
growth during 1995. In that year fixed investment contributed 5.58 percent to a GDP growth of
6.18 percent. By 1996, its contribution recovered sharply and by the end of that year it
contributed 4.07 percent to a GDP growth of 7.11 percent. Loosely speaking, fixed investment
alone explained around 60 percent of the GDP growth in that quarter. The average contribution
of fixed investment during the post-crisis period continued to be important, averaging a
contribution of 2.27 percent to the GDP growth of 5.13 percent.
3Kruger and Tornell (1999) suggest that this increase of the rate of growth of exports was facilitated by previous
structural economic reforms such as privatization, deregulation, removal of trade barriers and the entry into NAFTA.
8
The following sections analyze in more detail the role of inventories and fixed
investment, as well as the driving forces behind the rise in exports during the tequila crisis.
B. Fixed investment and inventories
Inventories are a flexible component of total investment, so their variation should be high
in periods of crisis. This section evaluates the role of inventories compared to the contribution of
fixed investment to GDP growth during and after the tequila crisis. It also shows the role that
these two components of demand played for three Asian economies during and after their
respective crises.
Figure 3A shows the growth rates of the components of investment. Clearly, inventories
are far more volatile than fixed investment. There are two periods with negative rates of growth
in inventories; the first, from the second quarter of 1992 to the first quarter of 1993; and the
second, in 1995, the year of the tequila crisis. Both periods were followed by short periods of
extremely high rates of growth (above 400 percent in both cases). The rate of growth of fixed
investment, on the other hand, oscillated between 30 and 30 percent; it was negative during
1995 and peaked during the period of recovery, as was seen in the last section.
In contrast, Figure 3B shows that the contribution of inventories was less significant for
the (fall and) growth of GDP than the contribution of fixed investment, in spite of the dramatic
variations in the growth of inventories. The simple explanation of this observation is that
inventory accumulation covers a very small share of GDP: 2.5 percent on average for 1993-99,
compared to 17.9 percent of GDP for fixed investment. During the crisis in 1995, fixed
investment contributed 5.58 percent to a GDP growth of 6.18 percent, while the contribution
9
of inventories was 2.16 percent. During the post-crisis period, the average contribution of fixed
investment continued to be more important than that of inventories. Fixed investment averaged a
contribution of 2.27 percent to the average GDP growth of 5.13 percent, while inventories
contributed only 0.70 percent.
Finally, figure 3C shows the absolute value of the difference between GDP growth and
each one of the components of investment. This difference reflects the contribution to GDP
growth of the rest of the aggregate demand components; the closer this difference is to zero, the
less important the contribution of the remaining components. Except for a few quarters, the
difference for fixed investment is closer to zero. For the period 1992-1999, the average absolute
value of the contribution to GDP growth from all demand components different from fixed
investment was barely 2.58 percent, while for the same period, the corresponding contribution
from all demand components different from inventories was 3.81 percent. During 1995, the
average contribution to GDP growth from all demand components different from fixed
investment was 2.20 percent, while for the same period, the contribution from all demand
components different from inventories was 4.12 percent. During 1996-99, the average absolute
value of the contribution to GDP growth from all demand components different from fixed
investment was 2.86 percent, while for the same period, the contribution from all demand
components different from inventories was 4.48 percent. Therefore, the contribution of fixed
investment to GDP growth was more relevant than that of inventories, especially during and after
the Mexican crisis.
The final aim of this section is to compare the role of inventories and fixed investment in
three Asian economies; namely Indonesia, Korea and Thailand. These three economies went
through a period of deep and long economic crises that began in mid-1997, and now show strong
10
signs of economic recovery. This section evaluates whether fixed investment has also played a
predominant role in the performance of these economies.4
Figures 4 A to C show the absolute value of the difference between GDP growth and each
one of the components of investment for Indonesia, Korea and Thailand. The vertical line shows
the quarter in 1997 when the crises began in each of these countries. In the case of Indonesia,
(Figure 4A), during the years of the crisis (1997:Q2-1999:Q1), the absolute value of the
difference between GDP growth and the contribution of fixed investment was closer to zero
(2.81 percent), than the difference with inventories (7.84 percent). Thus, more of the fall of GDP
is explained by the contribution of fixed investment than by the contribution of inventories. The
last two observations, which correspond to the recovery period, however, show that the
contribution of inventories surpassed that of fixed investment.5
In the case of Korea (Figure 4B), the contribution of fixed investment was also more
relevant for GDP rate of growth than inventories during the period of crisis (1997:Q3-1998:Q4),
even though the contribution of inventories was closer to that of fixed investment than in the case
of Indonesia. The average absolute value of the difference between GDP growth and the
contribution of fixed investment was 3.17 percent and that difference with inventories was 4.40
percent. As in the case of Indonesia, the last two observations that correspond to the period of
economic recovery, show higher contributions from inventories than from fixed investment.
In Thailand, the contribution of inventories was more relevant for GDP growth before
and during the onset of the crisis than the contribution of fixed investment. This trend was
reversed by the first quarter of 1998, when the contribution of fixed investment became stronger.
4We thank an anonymous reviewer for suggesting this comparison on the role of fixed investment and inventories
between Mexico and some Asian economies.
11
During the crisis (1997:Q2-1998:Q4), the average absolute value of the difference between GDP
growth and the contribution of fixed investment was 3.21 percent and that difference with
inventories was 6.00 percent. By the time of the recovery, the contribution of inventories to GDP
growth became as important as that of fixed investment.
To summarize, in times of crises, more of the fall of GDP is explained by the contribution
of fixed investment than by the contribution of inventories. This applies to the cases of Mexico,
Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand. We cannot evaluate the role of these components of investment
for periods of recovery in Asia, however, because recovery is just beginning to take place in the
Asian economies and any conclusion based on only a couple of observations risks being
misleading.
C. Export Growth
The external sector has been a key element in the development policies and strategies of
the last three Mexican governments. In 1985, the country began a process of trade liberalization
by joining the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the predecessor of the World
Trade Organization (WTO). In 1991, Mexico, the U.S. and Canada launched the negotiations
over the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA was
officially implemented beginning in January 1, 1994. By the time of the onset of the tequila
crisis, most of these trade reforms had been implemented, and none were reversed as a result of
the crisis. This section addresses the role of export growth by analyzing changes in the volume of
non-oil exports, measures of competitiveness and the real exchange rate of Mexican exports,
5Recovery is defined by those quarters for which the rate of growth on a year-on-year basis is positive. In Indonesia
the recovery began in the second quarter of 1999, while in Korea and Thailand it began in the first quarter of 1999.
12
which is defined as the ratio of the unit price of exports in Pesos divided by the Mexican
consumer price index.
In the previous section on the growth decomposition, Figure 1 showed that during the
tequila crisis there was an increase in the growth rate of exports (at constant local prices),
accompanied by a decrease in imports. Both tendencies certainly helped to cushion the fall of
GDP in 1995. Nonetheless, Figure 2 showed that this peak in the contribution of net-exports to
the growth of GDP was short-lived. After the crisis, the contribution of imports diminished
substantially and the contribution of exports also declined.
Figure 5 shows the growth rate of the volume of non-oil exports and the real exchange
rate of Mexican exports. This figure shows that the rise in export value growth seen in Figure 1
during the tequila crisis was not all due to changes in the aforementioned relative price, which
could be considered to be a purely "accounting"effect.6 This rise in export revenues was also due
to an increase in the rate of growth of the volume of non-oil exports, which accelerated in this
period from two percent in 1994:4 to almost 40 percent in 1995. The rate of growth of the
volume of exports declined by the first quarter of 1996, when the economic recovery began, as
the real exchange rate of exporters began a slow appreciation process. Nevertheless, the average
rate of growth of the volume of non-oil exports continued to be high (17.36 percent) from the
first quarter of 1996 to the third quarter of 1999.
Figure 6 shows the unit labor costs, the remuneration in US dollars per man/hour in the
manufacturing industries in Mexico and Korea, as well as the Mexican exports real exchange
rate. From 1993 to 1999, the unit labor costs decreased steadily, even as the real exchange rate
13
was appreciating before the crisis. On the other hand, remuneration per man/hour increased
before the crisis. This represents a loss in competitiveness for Mexican exports. This loss in
competitiveness was associated with the appreciation of the real exchange rate in the same
period. In 1995, the year of the crisis, the remuneration decreased 20 percent as the real exchange
rate depreciated. From 1996 onwards, both indicators of international competitiveness returned
to levels recorded in 1993. We can only infer that the gain in competitiveness, expressed by the
depreciation of the real exchange rate and the decrease in US dollars paid per man/hour, was an
important factor behind the increase in the volume of non-oil exports in 1995.
Finally, Figure 6 also shows the remuneration in US dollars per man/hour in Korea. It
shows that during 1997, prior to the crisis, remuneration increased by 30 percent. Through 1998,
remuneration per man/hour decreased and recovered its pre-crisis level by the end of 1999. Thus,
the behavior of remuneration around the Mexican and Korean crises was remarkably similar:
there was an increase of this indicator prior to the onset of the crisis and then, the year after the
crisis, it returns to the pre-crisis level. According to these indicators, Mexican exports lost
international competitiveness with respect to Korea the year before and the year after the tequila
crisis. Then, in 1996, both countries had similar levels of remuneration per man/hour. By the end
of that year, Korea began to lose competitiveness with respect to Mexico, and by 1999, both
countries had once again similar levels of remuneration per man/hour in dollars.
In sum, the growth of exports observed during and after the tequila crisis was probably
driven by an increase in the volume of non-oil exports, which was, in turn, stimulated by a
sustained reduction in unit labor costs and a transitory improvement (or correction) in the
6The rate of change of export revenues measured at constant local prices can be decomposed into a relative price or
14
international competitiveness of Mexico's industrial sector. The latter seems to have been
associated with the real devaluation of the Peso.
II. A Mexican Investment Function
The growth decomposition exercise presented above indicated that fixed capital
formation was at the heart of the economic recovery in Mexico after 1995. Also, there seems to
be some evidence that Mexican investment may be linked to the performance of the tradable
sector (Krueger and Tornell 1999). Hence it is important to study more carefully the determinants
of investment and its links with the tradable sector.
We can model Mexican investment as a function of the output of tradables and non-
tradables, where we expect to find different sector multiplier effects:7
(2) I = I + mT · + mNT ·
Y T Y NT+ I(RIR, pK,RER)
where I is the (log of the) level of private fixed investment at constant prices; I is a constant,
minimum level; and the m's are the corresponding sector multipliers. The last term on the right-
hand side is the portion of the investment function that is determined by "cost factors,"including
the real interest rate (RIR), the relative price of capital goods (pK) and an uncertainty variable,
which we identify with the volatility of the real exchange rate (RER ). This simple model is
. . .
"accounting"effect and a volume effect: x = RER+ Q X .
7The appendix in Lederman et. al. (2000) presents a model of optimal investment rules which gives theoretical
grounds for this assumption. In brief, m(t)>m(nt) due to higher capital intensity of production in the tradables sector.
15
broadly consistent with standard empirical models of investment behavior in developing
countries (see Rama 1993), except for the assumption regarding the two sectors' multipliers.
Servén (1998) finds a strong negative effect of real exchange-rate uncertainty on investment-
output ratios in a cross-country panel framework. This effect could be an important explanation
of the fall of investment during 1995 in Mexico, and even of the downfall of investment during
the debt crisis of 1982-1983.
Moreover, the consideration of real exchange rate uncertainty is consistent with two
plausible assumptions. First, domestic investors can be risk-averse, thus uncertainty may
adversely affect private investment. Second, it is also possible that at least portions of private
investments are irreversible and contribute to sunk costs. Under these circumstances,
macroeconomic uncertainty can be associated with swings in the value of private firms, thus
hampering productive investment by firms (Pyndick 1988). If the tradables sector has a high
multiplier effect on private investment, then the uncertainty of the real exchange rate could also
have an indirect effect on investment through its effect on the output of tradables. As argued by
Maloney and Azevedo (1995), uncertainty about expected returns of producing for domestic
versus export markets will affect the composition of output.
If the output multipliers are constant over time, then in terms of growth rates, or in
differences of the logs, the investment function can be re-written as follows:
(3) gI = mT ·gT + mNT ·gNT + g RIR, g pK ,RER
( )
16
where the g's denote growth rates of the corresponding variables. In this specification, the
multipliers are analogous to the standard income accelerators that are standard in empirical
investment functions (Rama 1993, Servén 1998).
A companion paper by Lederman, et.al.(2000) estimates the investment function
described in equation (3). We will refer to our main findings of that paper where appropriate
throughout this paper.8 This basic investment function has as the dependent variable the growth
of Mexican fixed investment. The explanatory variables include the growth of the sectoral GDPs,
the domestic real interest rate, real exchange rate volatility, variations in the relative price of
capital, and the lagged dependent variable. This function is estimated for the whole sample
(1980-1999:Q3) and for a restricted sample (1980-1994) used to conduct an out-of-sample
forecast.9
The first column of Table 1 presents the results for the basic investment function.
According to the statistic for the J-test (last row) the model is well instrumented, i.e., the
instrumental variables are not correlated with the error term, and therefore we can interpret the
coefficients as being the impact from the explanatory variables to the dependent variable. A
second element to notice is that the Q-statistic shows no sign of serial correlation and therefore
supports the model specification.
8These empirical analyses rely purely on publicly available data, primarily from the Mexican statistical agency
(INEGI) and the International Monetary Fund. A description of the variables (and their sources) is presented in
Table 1 of Lederman et.al. (2000). All the data has a quarterly frequency and covers the period between 1980 and
the third quarter of 1999. The econometric models were estimated using the General Method of Moments (GMM)
estimator which controls for the joint endogeneity of the explanatory variables.
9The basic model is extended in Lederman, et. al. (2000) along four dimensions: first, the inflation differential
between tradable and non-tradable goods is added to the set of explanatory variables; second, the US real interest
rate is introduced; third, two measures of credit availability (the growth rates of total domestic credit and credit to the
private sector issued by commercial banks) are included; and, finally, the authors test the stability of the coefficient
on the domestic real interest rate during periods of crisis.
17
The results show that an increase of one percent in the output of tradables "causes"an
increase of 1.16 percent in the growth of fixed investment, while an equal increase in non-
tradables would "cause"an increase of 0.80 percent in the growth of fixed investment. Thus, the
multiplier effect of the tradable sector on investment clearly surpasses that of the non-tradable
sector.10 The volatility of the real exchange rate has a negative coefficient, but the magnitude of
this effect is not significantly different from zero. The relative price of capital (e.g., the ratio of
the price index of capital goods over the CPI) has a negative sign and is significant at the 5
percent level. The coefficient implies that an increase of one percent in the growth rate of this
relative price "causes" a reduction of 0.33 percent in the growth of fixed investment. The
coefficient of the domestic real interest rate has the expected negative sign in the estimation of
the investment function, and it is statistically different from zero. The estimated coefficient
implies that a one percentage point increase in the real interest rate leads to a 0.08 percentage
points decline in the growth rate of fixed investment.
Table 2 shows the contributions of the growth rate of tradable and non-tradable sectors
during 1996-99, based on the results presented in the first column of Table 1. In 1996, fixed
investment grew 14.9 percent; 10 percent of this growth was associated with the contribution of
tradables and 6.2 percent to the contribution of non-tradables.11 This relative importance of the
contribution of tradables is maintained through 1999. In contrast, the contribution of variations in
the relative price of capital seem to have been quite modest during the five years. 12 Interestingly
enough, the rate of growth of non-tradables fell by 18.9 percent during 1995, while the one for
10Moreover, the p-value of the F-statistic for the null hypothesis that the two multipliers are equal is 0.01.
11The sum of these contributions is larger than the growth of fixed investment because there are other determinants
of investment.
12These simulations presume that the actual variations in these explanatory variables were exogenous.
18
tradables fell only by 3.6 percent. Later in this paper we analyze the effect of real exchange rate
variations on the sectoral growth rates.
The second column of Table 1 shows results for the same basic regression estimated for
the 1980-1994 period. The results are quite similar to those reported for the full sample. An
important difference, however, is that the estimated negative coefficient of the real interest rate is
larger than the one reported in the first column. Another notable difference is that the estimation
with the restricted sample shows a Wald test that does not reject the null hypothesis that the
sectoral multipliers are equal -- its p-value is now 0.44.
To provide a visual illustration of the capacity of this basic model to explain the behavior
of Mexican investment during and after the 1995 crisis, Figure 7 presents the forecasted and
actual values for the year-on-year growth rate of Mexican fixed investment. The forecast
presented here uses the dynamic approach to forecasting which calculates multi-step forecasts
starting from the first period in the forecast sample (first quarter of 1995).13 It shows that this
naïve model quite successfully explains the behavior of Mexican fixed investment, especially
after 1995. The Theil inequality coefficient comparing the forecast with the actual observations is
relatively low at 0.17 (a zero would indicate a perfect fit). More importantly, almost 80 percent
of this inequality is due to the covariance between forecast and actual errors (or deviations from
the corresponding means). This means that the lion's share of the inequality between the forecast
and the actual observations is due to unsystematic error covariance.
The companion paper by Lederman et. al. explores in more depth the investment function
of the Mexican economy. In particular, it evaluates whether there was any structural break in the
estimated coefficient on the interest rate during the periods of crisis. It also controls for credit
19
availability and evaluates the importance of the US interest rate. Two important findings are: i)
The hypothesis of a structural break of the interest rates during the 1982-1983 debt crisis cannot
be rejected. That is, higher interest rates were related with higher growth in investment during
this period. For the tequila crisis, on the other hand, the results reject the hypothesis that the
coefficient on the real interest rate was positive during 1995. ii) The second important finding is
that US interest rates played an important role in the Mexican investment function. These results
provide strong evidence in favor of the Kruger-Tornell hypothesis that access to the U.S.
financial market was a key feature of the recovery after 1995. However, the inclusion of U.S.
rates did not dilute the negative coefficient on the domestic real interest rate. This last result
suggests the existence of some form of financial market segmentation, whereby some firms tap
the domestic credit market while others rely on the U.S. market.
III. The Role of Financial Transmission Channels
The Mexican financial sector had serious difficulties during the last decades. In 1982,
after the debt crisis, Mexico nationalized the banking system, only to privatize it again after
1991. By December 1994, the system was fragile once again, with 35% of total loans non-
performing. A third of the loans were denominated in foreign currency and most of them
extended to firms without sources of foreign income. The Peso-based loans also suffered from
the rise in interest rates during 1994 that was generalized as most credits had interest rates tied to
13This method is less `accurate'than the static approach, which calculates a sequence of one-step-ahead forecasts
using actual, rather than forecasted values for the lagged values of fixed investment growth.
20
the one-month Cetes. Finally, some of the loans allocated during the credit expansion of the early
90's went to risky ventures.14
These circumstances question the relevance of interest rates and the role of credit
availability as determinants of investment. To assess these questions, we must analyze the
evolution of credit in Mexico.
Figure 8 shows how credit has grown. The most noticeable feature of the evolution of
credit is the acceleration in the growth of credit offered to the private sector by non-money banks
in 1989, coinciding with a decrease in credit to the private sector by the deposit money banks.
The second feature is that during the crises of 1982-1983 and 1995 there was an overall decline
in credit. After the debt crisis, the recovery of credit from banking institutions different from
deposit money banks was quicker and stronger than other types of credit, even though credit from
deposit money banks followed closely. In 1996, after the tequila crisis, credit from banking
institutions different from deposit money banks, recovered partially but never attained its pre-
crisis share of total credit. Another important difference in the behavior of credit during the
tequila crisis was the strong recovery of credit from monetary authorities.
Under credit rationing, investment could be driven by credit availability and not by real
interest rates (Stiglitz and Weiss 1981). Lederman et. al. (2000) show that once total credit or
credit to the private sector were added to the basic investment function, there was high serial
correlation and the model was no longer well specified. Therefore we were unable to confirm or
reject the hypothesis that Mexico has suffered from credit rationing. On the other hand, when
these authors include credit availability instead of real interest rates to the core model, serial
correlation disappears and the coefficient for credit is positive and significant. Credit availability
14For an extensive description of the role of the banking system in the recovery of the Mexican economy see
21
could be considered an important determinant of fixed investment in Mexico and the decrease in
its availability during the crises negatively affected the growth of fixed investment. But we
cannot distinguish between the negative effects of high real interest rates and low credit
availability.
Figure 9 shows the behavior of domestic and foreign real interest rates. Domestic rates
were calculated using the money market nominal interest rate deflated by the consumer price
index. The foreign interest rate was calculated using the US prime lending rate deflated by the
import unit value of the USA. This last interest rate should reflect the relative cost faced by
domestic producers of tradable goods and thus the import unit value is one possible proxy
deflator.
First, Figure 9 shows a long period (1981-1987) of negative domestic real interest rates.
The average real interest rate in Mexico between the debt crisis (1982:Q1) and the second quarter
of 1988 was 23.1 percent. In that period there was a big gap between domestic and US real
interest rates; the average U.S. real interest rate was 10.25 percent. Then, from 1988:Q3 to
1994:Q4, the domestic real interest rate decreased to an average of 9.92 percent. In the year of the
crisis this rate fell to an average of 3.85 percent, and during the recovery years (1996:Q1 to
1999:Q3) it increased again to an average of 5.2 percent. The gap with the US real interest rate
narrowed and became negative; between 1995 and 1999, the average U.S. real interest rate was
8.05 percent.
Thus, for the period under study, there is a clear "break"in the series of domestic real
interest rates. During and after the debt crisis, domestic real interest rates plummeted for a long
time, but during the tequila crisis, the drop was both less dramatic and of shorter duration.
Krueger and Tornell (1999).
22
Lederman et. al. tests the hypothesis of how fixed investment was affected by the fact that real
interest rates behaved differently during each of these crises. The authors conclude that there was
indeed a structural break in the estimated coefficient of the domestic real interest rate during the
debt crisis. In other words, during the debt crisis, an increase in interest rates was related to an
increase in fixed investment. This result can be interpreted as evidence that increases in interest
rates generated confidence in the economy, although there are other plausible explanations.15
Nevertheless, this empirical conclusion cannot be extended to the tequila crisis.
We have mentioned that during the 1990s domestic and US real interest rates floated
around the same levels, and that capital markets were greatly transformed and liberalized since
the late 1980s. These facts open the question of the role played by the US credit market during
this last decade. As mentioned, Lederman et. al. find that US real interest rates do matter in the
Mexican investment function. In fact, when the US real interest rate is added to set of
explanatory variables in the basic investment function, it presents a significant negative
coefficient, while the relevance of domestic real interest rates is also maintained. This result
provides some evidence in favor of the hypothesis that some sectors of the Mexican economy are
tightly integrated with the U.S. financial markets while others are not.
IV. What was the dynamic short-term relationship between the real exchange-rate and
investment growth?
Our previous model does not examine the direct relationship between the real exchange
rate and fixed investment, because the real exchange rate is expected to affect investment only
indirectly, through its effects on the relative price of capital and the composition of output. Here
15During this period, Mexican banks were nationalized and interest-rate controls were imposed. Therefore, it is not
23
we use the impulse-response function (IRF) derived from Vector Auto-Regressions (VAR) to
study the relationship between fixed investment and the real exchange rate. We ran a VAR with
the growth rates of fixed investment, the relative price of capital goods, and the real exchange
rate as endogenous variables. The choice of these variables is inspired by existing evidence for
Mexico indicating that the relative price of capital may be an important channel through which
variations in the real exchange rate (and its determinants, such terms of trade) affect domestic
investment (Warner 1994).16 We also included the following exogenous variables that are likely
to affect the three variables mentioned above: the growth of U.S. GDP, variations in public
consumption, variations in the terms of trade, the U.S. real prime lending rate, the OPEN and
NAFTA dummy variables, and a constant. Figure 10 shows the corresponding IRF assuming that
the real exchange-rate is more exogenous than the relative price of capital which, in turn, is
assumed to be more exogenous than fixed investment. Twelve lags of the endogenous variables
were included in the VAR, because the Akaike, Scwartz and Log Likelihood tests all indicated
that this was the best distributed lag specification, when compared to 1, 4 and 8 lags. The IRF
illustrates the effect on investment of a one standard deviation innovation in the real exchange
rate. The results show that the response of investment to an appreciation of the real exchange
rate is positive at first but becomes negative and significant during the second year, after
approximately five quarters.17
The finding that an appreciation of the real exchange rate in Mexico is associated with an
expansion of the economy in the short run, is consistent with the conclusions of other recent
empirical studies. For example, Kamin and Rogers (1998) also find that appreciations
surprising that we found a structural break during that time.
16The RER used here is the IMF's real effective exchange rate.
24
(depreciations) have positive (negative) effects on output, but these authors argue that there are
multiple channels through which this effect takes place, including its effect on government
spending, monetary aggregates, and capital flows. In fact, Kamin and Rogers only tentatively
reject the hypothesis that the channel is the inflation rate. Four quarters after the simulated
appreciation the growth of fixed investment tends to decline. A plausible interpretation of these
dynamic effects is that an appreciation has an initially positive effect that could be due to income
effects (or positive net worth effects) and the reduction of the relative price of capital. Later, as a
substitution effect takes hold (see below), investment growth declines as a consequence of the
real appreciation of the currency.
V. Were there short-term substitution effects of real exchange rate variations?
Based on pairwise VARs, the impulse-response functions presented in Figures 11A-C
look at the effect of the real exchange rate on the relative growth of the non-tradable and tradable
sectors. The model was estimated with 1, 4, 8 and 12 lags, but Figures 11A through C show the
IRF based on the lag specification supported by the Akaike criteria.18 The endogenous variables
are the rate of growth of either tradables, non-tradables or the ratio of tradables/non-tradables and
the real exchange rate, being this latter one the more exogenous. As exogenous variables we
included US GDP, US real interest rate, public consumption, terms of trade and dummy variables
for openness and NAFTA. The first two IRFs show that an appreciation of the real exchange rate
tends to raise the growth rate in the non-tradables and the tradables sectors in the short run,
17The VAR results show that, among the exogenous variables, the growth of US GDP has a positive and significant
coefficient (6.2; t-stat of 2.4). The US real interest rate is also significant (-0.4; t-stat of -2.6).
18The Schwartz and log-likelihood criteria supported different distributed lag specifications.
25
lasting between 4 and 5 quarters. But this effect is larger for the non-tradables sector.19 The
finding that an appreciation of the real exchange rate in Mexico is associated with a transitory
expansion of the economy is consistent with the conclusions of other empirical studies. As
mentioned earlier, Kamin and Rogers (1998) also find that appreciations (depreciations) have
positive (negative) effects on output. On the other hand, Figure 11C provides evidence that
variations in the real exchange rate have significant substitution effects in the sense that it affects
the composition of output: an appreciation decreases the rate of growth of tradables over non-
tradables. This effect is also clear from Figure 12. This figure shows how the ratio of the rate of
growth of tradables over non-tradables accelerated after the depreciations of the debt and the
tequila crises. In other words, while the depreciation of the real exchange rate tends to have a
short-run negative income effect associated with a decline in the growth rates of tradable and
non-tradable output, this effect is larger for non-tradables. We interpret this differential effects as
evidence of transitory substitution effects. This temporary substitution effect implies a permanent
change in the composition of the level of Mexican output in favor of tradables.
CONCLUSIONS
Since the eruption of the so-called tequila crisis of 1995, and after the Asian crises of
1997, much has been written about the causes of financial crises in developing countries. Yet
much less attention has been given to the evolution of the productive economy after these
19Of the exogenous variables, only the terms of trade has a significant coefficient in the regression for the growth of
tradable output. The US GDP growth rate has a positive coefficient (0.8) but its t-statistic is low (1.4). None of the
exogenous variables were significant in the determination of non-tradable output growth.
26
crises.20 This study provides an analysis of the macroeconomic variables behind the recovery of
the Mexican economy. The growth decomposition exercise showed that during the crisis, there
was an increase in exports growth and a reduction in imports growth, that played a crucial role in
cushioning the fall in GDP. During the period of recovery, imports contributed negatively to
GDP growth and exports contribution, though still relevant, was smaller than during the crisis.
The rate of growth of fixed investment, on the other hand, plummeted during the Mexico
tequila crisis but recovered sharply in 1996, attaining rates of growth higher than those observed
during the pre-crisis period. Hence the contribution of fixed investment was a critical element in
the post-crisis period. Inventories, on the other hand, were not as important. As in the case of
Mexico, the growth of fixed investment and its contribution to GDP growth fell in Indonesia,
Korea, and Thailand during times of crises. It is not possible to come to a conclusion for the post-
crises periods in the Asian economies because of the lack of sufficient observations.
The rise in the growth of export revenues measured in constant pesos during and after the
crisis was not all due to the "accounting"effect of the real exchange rate.21 It was also because
the rate of growth of the volume of non-oil exports accelerated in this period. Furthermore, as the
real exchange rate depreciated, remuneration in US dollars decreased, and remained at that low
level during 1995-1999, thus improving the competitiveness of the tradable sector. Finally, since
1994, unit labor costs have tended to decrease, even when the real exchange rate appreciated.
The empirical implementation of the fixed investment function for Mexico follows the
principles of basic economics. It only adds to basic investment models the assumption that
tradable and non-tradable output growth have different multiplier effects on investment. The
20See Perry and Lederman (1999) for a comparison of the aftermath of Latin American and Asian Crises in the
1990s.
27
main finding is that the basic model does quite well in predicting the recovery of investment
during 1996-1999. Also, the tradable sector has a higher multiplier effect than non-tradables,
while naïve measures of real exchange-rate uncertainty are not robust determinants of Mexican
fixed capital formation.
The section on the role of financial transmission channels concludes that both the amount
of credit and real interest rates seem to be important determinants of fixed investment and we
could not distinguish between their effects. It also finds that US real interest rates are significant
determinants (with a negative sign) of the growth of fixed investment in Mexico. Thus, there is
evidence in favor of the Kruger-Tornell (1999) hypothesis that access to the U.S. financial
market by Mexican firms operating in the tradable sector was a key feature of the economic
recovery after 1995.
The paper also finds that the impact of variations of the real exchange rate on fixed
investment seems to be dominated by income effects initially. Substitution effects were also
present in the sense that a depreciation of the real exchange rate seems to produce a larger
decline in the growth of non-tradable output than of tradable output. Therefore, a depreciation of
the real exchange rate, such as that of 1995, has a negative income effect associated with a
decline in the growth rates of tradable and non-tradable output in the short-run. Nevertheless,
there is a substitution effect which makes this negative effect larger for non-tradables and
therefore, the rate of growth of tradables over non-tradables accelerated after the depreciation.
The story that emerges is that Mexican investment growth declined during 1995 due to the
currency depreciation's impact on the relative price of capital goods and the income effect, but
21This "accounting"effect is given by the fact that a real depreciation raises the value of exports in domestic
currency relative to the general consumer price level.
28
eventually the recovery was driven by the high multiplier effect from the growth of tradable
output.
Some of the most relevant empirical conclusions which can be drawn from this paper are:
· The decline and subsequent rise in the GDP growth rate were primarily due to the behavior of
fixed investment.
· Fixed investment growth was negative during the crisis because the real depreciation of the
exchange rate raised the relative price of capital. Besides, the real depreciation had a negative
income effect that affected investment decisions.
· The recovery of fixed investment observed during the year after the crisis was linked to the
substitution effect of the real devaluation in favor of the tradable sector. Indeed, the real
devaluation produced a notable improvement in the competitiveness of Mexican
manufactures, which was reflected in an increase in the growth of the volume of non-oil
exports. This may explain why the growth of tradables declined less than the growth of non-
tradables in 1995.
· The international comparisons based on the growth decomposition show that in the cases of
currency crises in Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand, fixed investment was also an important
driving force behind the fall in GDP growth.
· There is strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that financial links with the U.S. economy
were important factors that helped in the recovery of Mexican investment.
As a policy implication we can say that during currency crises there are tradeoffs related
to interest rate defenses of the currency. High nominal interest rates used to contain inflation are
associated with higher real interest rates, which then contribute to the downfall of investment. On
the other hand, the depreciation of the currency can have negative consequences on investment in
29
the short-run as a result of its effects on the relative price of capital and its negative income
effect. However, a real depreciation is healthy in the medium term because it stimulates export
growth and increases the share of tradables in total output, which then has a large multiplier
effect on investment. At the very least, this paper has shown that in the case of the Mexican
recovery there is no evidence in favor of blind defenses of the currency during and after a
speculative attack.
30
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Hansen, Lars P. 1982, "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments
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Hylleberg, S., R.F. Engle, C.W.J. Granger, and B.S. Yoo. 1990. "Seasonal Integration and
Cointegration." Journal of Econometrics 44: 215-238.
International Monetary Fund. 1996. World Economic Outlook. Washington, DC: International
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Kamin, Steven and John Rogers. 1998. "Output and the Real Exchange Rate in Developing
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System International Finance Discussion Papers #580. Washington, DC.
Krueger, Ann and Aaron Tornell. 1999. "The Role of Bank Restructuring in Recovering from
Crisis: Mexico 1995-98."National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series
# 7042. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Lederman, D., A.M. Menéndez, G. Perry, and J. Stiglitz. 2000. "The Recovery of Mexican
Investment after the Tequila Crisis: Basic Economics or "Confidence" Effects?"
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Perry, Guillermo, and Daniel Lederman. 1999. Adjustments after Speculative Attacks in Latin
America and Asia: A Tale of Two Regions? Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Pindyck, Robert. 1988. "Irreversible Investment, Capacity Choice and the Value of the Firm."
American Economic Review 78: 969-985.
Radelet, Steven, and Jeffrey D. Sachs. 1998. "The East Asian Financial Crises: Diagnosis,
Remedies, Prospects." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1:1-74.
Rama, Martín. 1993. "Empirical Investment Equations for Developing Countries." In Striving for
Growth after Adjustment: The Role of Capital Formation, edited by L. Servén and A.
Solimano. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Servén, Luis. 1998. "Macroeconomic Uncertainty and Private Investment in LDCs: An Empirical
Investigation."World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No.2035. Washington, DC,
The World Bank.
Servén, Luis. 1999. "Terms-of-Trade Shocks and Optimal Investment: Another Look at the
Laursen-Metzler Effect." Journal of International Money and Finance 18: 337-365.
Stiglitz, Joseph E., and Andrew Weiss. 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect
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31
Table 1. GMM Regression Results
Dependent Variable Growth of Growth of
------------ Investment Investment
Explanatory Variables (restricted
sample)
(a) (a)
Constant -0.04** -0.04**
(0.00) (0.01)
Lagged Investment 0.26** 0 43**
(0.03) (0.07)
GDP non-Tradables 0.80** 1.19**
(0.08) (0.18)
GDP Tradables 1.16** 0.90**
(0.08) (0.22)
Volatility RER -0.00 -0.02**
(0.00) (0.01)
Relative Price of Capital -0.33** -0.52**
(0.09) (0.24)
Real Interest Rates -0.08** -0.13**
(0.02) (0.06)
US GDP
N 67 50
Adjusted R^2 0.92 0.88
S.E. of Regresion 0.05 0.05
Q-stat for lag 4, p-value 0.98 0.42
Wald test, p-value 0.01 0.44
J-test, p-value 0.85 0.50
*Significant at 10%, ** Significant at 5%. NOTES: All variables are included in year-on year differences of their logs, except for Mexican and
US Real Interest Rates which are in levels. (a)Exogenous variables: US Real Interest Rates, US GDP and Terms of Trade. 4 lags of endogenous
variables and seasonal dummy variables.
32
Table 2: Contributions to Investment Growth*
(Actual growth rates in parenthesis)
Year Investment Contribution of Contribution of Contribution of
Growth Non-Tradables Tradables Relative Price
of Capital
1995 -34.44% -15.1% -4.2% -0.7%
(-18.9%) (-3.6%) (2.2%)
1996 14.9% 6.2% 10.0% 1.6%
(7.7%) (8.6%) (-4.8%)
1997 19.2% 6.3% 8.5% 0.9%
(7.8%) (7.3%) (-2.7%)
1998 10.6% 3.7% 6.7% -0.10%
(4.6%) (5.7%) (0.4%)
1999 4.6% 3.1% 4.4% 0.30%
(3.9%) (3.8%) (-1.2%)
Note: The contribution = estimated coefficient (Table 1, column 1) * actual growth rate
33
Figure 1. Mexico: Growth Rates of Demand Components
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
-10.00
-20.00
-30.00
-40.00
GDP Growth Private Consumption Growth
Gross Fixed Capital Formation Growth Exports Growth
Imports Growth
Figure 2. Mexico: Contribution of Demand Components to GDP Growth
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00
-10.00
-12.00
GDP Growth Contribution of Private Consumption
Contribution of Gross Fixed Capital Formation Contribution of Exports
Contribution of Imports
34
Figure 3A. Mexico: Growth Rates of Investment Components
1000.00
800.00
600.00
400.00
200.00
0.00
-200.00
-400.00
Gross Fixed Capital Formation Growth Inventories Growth GDP Growth
Figure 3B. Mexico: Contribution of Fixed Investment and Inventories to GDP Growth
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00
-8.00
-10.00
-12.00
Contribution of Gross Fixed Capital Formation Contribution of Changes in Inventories GDP Growth
Figure 3C. Mexico: Relative Importance of Inventories and Fixed Investment
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
35
GDP Growth - Gross Fixed Capital Formation GDP Growth - Change in Inventories
Figure 4. Asia: Relative Importance of Fixed Investment and Inventories to GDP Growth
Indonesia
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1997/01 1997/02 1997/03 1997/04 1998/01 1998/02 1998/03 1998/04 1999/01 1999/02 1999/03
GDP Growth - Contribution of Gross Fixed Investment GDP Growth - Contribution of Inventories
Korea
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1997/01 1997/02 1997/03 1997/04 1998/01 1998/02 1998/03 1998/04 1999/01 1999/02 1999/03
GDP Growth - Contribution of Gross Fixed Investment GDP Growth - Contribution of Inventories
36
Thailand
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1997/01 1997/02 1997/03 1997/04 1998/01 1998/02 1998/03 1998/04 1999/01 1999/02 1999/03
GDP Growth - Contribution of Gross Fixed Investment GDP Growth - Contribution of Inventories
37
Figure 5. Mexico: Growth of Exports Volume
45 70
40 60
50
35
40
30
30
25
20
20
10
15
0
10
-10
5 -20
0 -30
Growth Vol. Non-Oil Exports Growth of RER for Exporters
38
Figure 6. Mexico: Remuneration in US Dollars per Man Hour and Unit Labor
Costs,
1994-1999
(In manufacturing industries; 12-month moving average; 1993=100)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Unit Labor Costs Dollars per Man Hour Korea: Dollars per Man Hour Mexican Real Exchange Rate
39
Figure 7. Out-of-Sample Forecast of the Recovery of Mexican Investment Growth, 1995-
1998
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98
Growth of Fixed Investment Forecast
Theil Inequality Coefficient 0.17
Bias Proportion 0.01
Variance Proportion 0.19
Covariance Proportion 0.79
40
Figure 8. Mexico: Growth of Credit
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
Total Domestic Credit Credit from monetary authorities and deposit money banks
Credit to the private sector by other banking institutions Credit to the private sector by deposit money banks
41
Figure 9. Mexico and US: Real Interest Rates
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
Mexican real interest rates U.S. real interest rates*
42
Figure 10. Response of Fixed Investment to One S.D. Innovation to RER*
0.04
0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
*Variables are in the year-on-year differences of the logs. VAR: RER, Relative Price of Capital and Fixed Investment
Exogenous variables: USGDP, USRIR, Public Consumption, Openness, Nafta, Terms of Trade and a Constant
Lags:12; AIC:-12.19; SWZ:-7.20; Log Likelihood:479.
43
Figure 11A. Response of Non-Tradables to One S.D. Innovation to the RER*
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Lags:12; AIC:-5.73; SWZ:-3.36; Log Likelihood 240.00
Figure 11B. Response of Tradables to One S.D. Innovation to the RER*
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
-0.005
-0.010
-0.015
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Lags:12; AIC:-6.82; SWZ:-4.44; Log Likelihood 272.49
Figure 11C. Response of Tradables/Non-Tradables to One S.D. Innovation to the RER*
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
-0.01
-0.02
-0.03
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Lags:8; AIC:-5.52; SWZ:-3.76; Log Likelihood 228.5.
*Variables are in the year-on-year differences of the logs. VAR: RER, Non-Tradables.
Exogenous variables: USGDP, USRIR, Public Consumption, Openness, Nafta, Terms of Trade and a Constant
44
Figure 12. Rate of Growth of the Ratio Tradables/Non-Tradables
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
-0.1
80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98
45